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Thì khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect tense)

Khái niệm

Thì quá khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect tense) dùng để diễn tả một hành động xảy ra trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ. Hành động nào xảy ra trước thì dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành. Hành động xảy ra sau thì dùng thì quá khứ đơn.

1. Cấu trúc thì quá khứ hoàn thành

1. Thể khẳng định

Cấu trúc: S + had + VpII

Trong đó: S (subject): Chủ ngữ

Had: trợ động từ

VpII: động từ phân từ II (Quá khứ phân từ)

Ví dụ: She had had breakfast before we came. ( Cô ấy đã ăn sáng trước khi chúng tôi tới. )

– The boy had finished his homework before he went to bed last night. ( Cậu bé đã hoàn thành bài về nhà trước khi đi ngủ đêm qua. )

2. Thể phủ định

Cấu trúc: S + had not + VpII

Lưu ý: hadn’t = had not

Ví dụ:

– Linda hadn’t washed the dishes when her mother came home. (Linda vẫn chưa rửa bát khi mẹ cô ấy về đến nhà.)

-We hadn’t eaten anything by the time our father returned . (Lúc bố chúng tôi quay lại, chúng tôi vẫn chưa ăn gì .)

3. Thể nghi vấn

  • Câu hỏi Yes/No question

Cấu trúc: Had + S + VpII ?

Trả lời: Yes, S + had./ No, S + hadn’t.

Ví dụ:

-Had he left when we went to bed? (Anh ấy đã về lúc chúng ta đi ngủ phải không ?)

Yes, he had./ No, he hadn’t.

  • Had your phone disappeared by the time you woke up? (Tên trộm đã biến mất trước khi anh tỉnh dậy phải không?)

Yes, it had./ No, it hadn’t

  • Câu hỏi WH- question

Cấu trúc: WH-word + had + S + VpII +…?

Trả lời: S + had + VpII +…

Ví dụ : What had you done before midnight yesterday? (Cậu đã làm gì trước nửa đêm hôm qua?)

-How had he tried before he achieved his goal? (Trước khi ông ấy đạt được mục tiêu của mình, ông ấy đã cố gắng như thế nào?)

2.Dấu hiệu nhận biết

Những từ hay xuất hiện trong thì này: Until then, before, after, prior to that time, by the time, for, as soon as, by, …When, when by, by the end of + time in the past …

Lưu ý: Dùng QKHT + before + QKD và After + QKHT, QKĐ.

– When (khi) When they arrived at the airport, her flight had taken off. (Khi họ tới sân bay, chuyến bay của cô ấy đã cất cánh.)

– Before (trước khi) She had done her homework before her mother asked her to do so. (Cô ấy đã làm bài tập về nhà trước khi mẹ cô ấy yêu cầu cô ấy làm như vậy.)

– After (sau khi) They went home after they had eaten a big roasted chicken. (Họ về nhà sau khi đã ăn một con gà quay lớn.)

– By the time (vào thời điểm) He had cleaned the house by the time her mother came back. (Cậu ấy đã lau xong nhà vào thời điểm mẹ cậu ấy trở về.)

BÀI TẬP THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ĐƠN – QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH

Exercise 1: Chia động từ ở các câu sau đây.

1. They (go) ……………..home after they (finish) ………………… their work.

2. She said that she (already, see) ……………………. Dr. Rice.

3. After taking a bath, he (go) ………………………….. to bed.

4. He told me he (not/eat) ………………………… such kind of food before.

5. When he came to the stadium, the match (already/ begin) ………………………………….

6. Before she (watch) ………………….. TV, she (do) ………………. homework.

7. What (do) …………….. he before he went to the airport?

8. After they (go) ………………………, I (sit) ……………….. down and (watch)…………..TV

9. Yesterday, John (go) ………………….. to the store before he (go) ………………… home.

10. She (win) ………………………. the gold medal in 1986.

Exercise 2: Viết lại câu dựa vào những từ cho sẵn.

1. David had gone home before we arrived.

=> After…………………………………………………………………………………….

2. We had lunch then we took a look around the shops.

=> Before……………………………………………………………………………………

3. The light had gone out before we got out of the office.

=> When…………………………………………………………………………………….

4. After she had explained everything clearly, we started our work.

=> By the time …………………………………………………………………………….

5. My father had watered all the plants in the garden by the time my mother came home.

=> Before………………………………………………………………………………….

Exercise 3: Mỗi câu sau chứa một lỗi sai. Tìm và sửa chúng.

1. Before they came to visit my grandparents, I have already cleaned the house.

2. After Jimmy had gone home, I was doing the shopping.

3. She had come to the cinema before I do.

4. When they arrived, John goes away.

5. I had prepared for the exam and am ready to do well.

Exercise 4. Chọn dạng đúng của động từ để hoàn thành câu

1. They (come) …………….. back home after they (finish) ………………… their work.

2. She said that she ( meet) ……………………. Mr. Bean before.

3. Before he (go) ………………………….. to bed, he (read) ………………………… a novel.

4. He told me he (not/wear) ………………………… such kind of clothes before.

5. When I came to the stadium, the match (start) ………………………………….

6. Before she (listen) ………………….. to music, she (do)……………………. her homework.

7. Last night, Peter (go) ………………….. to the supermarket before he (go) ………………… home

Exercise 5. Đọc các tình huống sau. Hoàn thành các câu sau sử dụng từ cho trước

1. You went to Suc’s house, but she wasn’t there. (she/ go/ out)
-> ………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same asbefore. (it/ change/ a lot)
-> ………………………………………………………………………………………………

3. I invited Rachel to the party, but she couldn’t come. (she/ arrange/ to do something else)
-> ………………………………………………………………………………………………

4. You went to the cinema last night. You got to the cinema late. (the film/ already/ begin)
-> ………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. It was nice to see Dan again after such a long time. (I/ not/ see/ him for five years)
-> ………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. I offered Sue something to eat, but she wasn’t hungry. (she/ just/ have breakfast)
-> …………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 6. Viết lại câu sao cho nghĩa không đổi sử dụng từ gợi ý cho sẵn.

1. David had gone home before we arrived.

-> After …………………………………………………………………………………………

2. We had lunch then we took a look around the shops.

-> Before………………………………………………………………………………………

3. The light had gone out before we got out of the office.

-> When…………………………………………………………………………………………

4. After she had explained everything clearly, we started our work.

-> By the time…………………………………………………………………………………….

5. My father had watered all the plants in the garden by the time my mother came home.

-> Before ……………………………………………………………………………………….

Exercise 1

1. went, had finished

2. had already seen

3. went

4. hadn’t eaten

5. had already begun

6. watched, had done

7. had done

8. had gone, sat, watched

9. had gone, went

10. won

Exercise 2

1.After David had gone home, we arrived.

2.Before we took a look around the shops, we had had lunch.

3. When we got out of the office, the light had gone out.

4. By the time we started our work, she had explained everything clearly.

5. Before my mother came home, my father had watered all the plants in the garden.

Exercise 3

1. have => had

2. was doing => did

3. do => did

4. goes => had gone

5. am => was

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